Flow & Level Measurement

Are There Components Of The Velocity That Are Not Determined By The Measurement Of The Force? III. Myths, Misconceptions And Miscalculations

Are there components of the velocity that are not determined by the measurement of the force? Solution: es!Y Any velocity component parallel to the B ~ eld will not contribute to the magnetic force. Notice how v z doesn't appear in the force.

It was designed with the dimensions of space itself. This situation applied only to if you carefully note the details the truly huge weapons such as the 8 and 4 bore blackpowder rifles and later. In our operation of working models and in checking out experiments, we had to find the formula that fir the reason for the action and reaction we were getting. Consider the following excerpt from an article written by then Major Charles Askins Jr.

The projects for these cases adopt regulations compliant to explosion proof, increased safety or intrinsic safety. The certificates are distinct ones and the user is responsible for its correct utilization.

A pressure transmitter specified for critical areas, namely, for safety functions, it is an equipment with the probability of low occurrence of failures and high operation reliability.

There are two concepts in the market.

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In practice, there are many applications specified for equipment with SIL certification to be used on control systems without the safety function.

Also there has been a great deal of misinformation conducive to the purchase of more expensive equipment, where the SIL specification is not necessarily useful and make the use and operation of the equipment more difficult. Safety Instrumented Systems SIS are designed for operational safety and ensure emergency shutdowns within the limits considered to be safe, whenever the operation goes beyond these limits.

The main goal is to avoid accidents inside and outside the factories, such as fires, explosions, damage to the equipment, protection to the production and the property and, moreover, avoid risks to life, damage to the health of persons and catastrophic impact on the community.

May 23,  · Note that a is the time derivative of the velocity. it's a measure of how the velocity is changing over time. Therefore, if you know the external force applied to an object than Newton's Second Law tells you the acceleration, i.e. how the velocity changes over Resolved.

No equipment is totally immune to failures and must always deal basically with 3 types of failures: What should the user know about SIL-certified transmitters and why they are not the best choice for control and monitoring? No change of configuration, simulation, multi-drop or loop test can be made with the equipment in normal operation, namely, requiring safety.

In these conditions, the output cannot be evaluated safely. In safe condition it must be with write protection disabled; No local adjustment can be executed i.

The goal is to reduce the possibility of failures occurring; In case of failure, this must be fail safe, i. In applications with aggressive fluids, high temperature or viscosity, suspended solids, integral transmitters with remote seal called level transmitters are recommended. Whenever possible, the use of seals must be avoided, as these degrade the measurement exactness, increase the transmitter response time and suffer great influence from the ambient temperature.

Seals with flanged connections must be compatible with the process flanges and respect the pressure classes established on the pressure and temperature tables of the respective standards.

The manufacturers adopt a standardized terminology that must be learned: However, the lower range should always be chosen. All specs for stability, temperature effect, static pressure effect are determined with URL percent values.

An exception for that choice is when the overpressure or static pressure limits can be reached. For transmitters with Foundation Fieldbus protocol it is important to know the functional block library available.

The electromagnetic force stored in the energy of the Utron electric-accumulator, which in vernacular is a battery. Now the Utron electric accumulator is these cones that are inverted to each other with bases together.

I know of zinc batteries, nickel-cadmium, lead-acid cells. Could you use those? We could use any of the kinds you mentioned; what we have here is tremendous power size in comparison to other batteries; therefore, it's very easy to put 2-volt cells inside this one unit as you see it.

It has functioned very well. In our foot craft we plant to have 12,volt batteries which will extend an electromotive force which will energize the electromagnets and the capacitor plates. The generative coils will put back into the batteries in this system the same amount of volts going out until there is a breakdown of electro-chemicals or wear-out of equipment.

But it could last as long as average storage batteries in automobiles. In order to start the motor off originally, is it necessary to cause a flow of electricity through one set of the coils? Is there any magnetic force in the other set of coils at this point?

They individually operate by circuit breakers and the first motion begins to start a repetition. The same we have in a motor that has the opposite of a commutator, which is an accumulation of contact points where each coil is energized as the current flows through this coil.

Then this starts the motion, the repetition of this motion brings the whole motor into phase in the same sense our accumulator and magnets become speeded up and the circuits are made and broken as they rotate. Where the inner rotor rotates in one direction and the outer in the other direction.

We have this cabin as the center of the craft and the battery below the cabin and the electromagnets are the total outside of the circular foil. The shaft of the accumulator goes through the cabin and there is a bearing. Now, just as this stays stationary when this is rotated, so will the cabin because there are two rotating forces.

You have the clockwise rotation of the accumulator, the capacitor plates, the generative coils, you have a counter-rotation of the entire circular area of the craft, the larger diameter which houses the electromagnets; therefore, when you have rotation in both directions, the cabin itself is like a bearing and extension of the shaft.

We've built models and proved this is correct. OTC XI was accomplished? Six crafts were airborne, one escaped; we used circuit breakers of various types and fuses burned through the switch and we lost one craft.

What was the size? The largest and the one lost was 6 feet in diameter. You also talk of the Caroto Gravity Motor and you mention it requires no fixed location in which to function, and you also say a lot of other wonderful things about the possibility for this motor.

Is it something else than the spacecraft? They are two separate packages. The spacecraft utilizes the electrical accumulator and the gravity motor uses the energy of the inertial attractive forces. We have learned how to take this energy and key it to a working shaft and get work power which we call free energy because it is.

We don't make any part of it. Now in the rather vulgar vernacular sense this would have been classified as perpetual motion. It is nothing of the sort. Now we have learned that all masses that are smaller than the masses to which they are attracted exert energy.

Even this ashtray; if it takes a pound of energy to lift it, then it is exerting a pound of energy. We have a true gravity motor. Its functional operation is to produce power continuously without any dissipation of the energy which causes it to operate, and we have built models of this and they operate and function and we are in the patent procedure with this.

Back to a question a while ago regarding an analogy of the earth as a spacecraft. Taking another look at the mock up prototype power package there in front of you. It resembles the solar system itself, and as a matter of fact one of the statements in the brochure published instated it illustrated the geometry of the universe.

It seems that this device miniaturizes and essentially duplicates the motion of bodies in the solar system. It must have the ability to miniaturize their energy. So in a sense, the bodies in the solar system, in all time, have maintained their constant motion perpetually in those motions and this is why people characterize this power package as a perpetual motion machine.

But we do not make any such claim. The Utron has many applications, has many forms, many variation. In one sense you might describe it as an energized armature or in other words a motor with a self-contained moving battery, also capable of continuously re-energizing itself.

The offer in regards to spacecraft applies to government and industry alike. We will only make total disclosure demonstration after we have procured a firm order.

In other words, we're not looking for anyone to evaluate our development. Mr Carr has come a long way in his research. He doesn't need any risk money from taxpayers or industries for further exploration and development.

We will disclose to anyone who is a purchaser, but not to anyone who comes along for curiosity. What does the word "Utron" mean?

The letter U as described on paper, the two-dimensional, is a portrait on paper of the wave or the wave motion with the cut field, with the straight line, the pressure energy in the Utron accelerator. To me there's no such thing as a completed curve; you only go half way, just like you only go half way into the woods, then you're coming out.

This is the same. A bisection of a total sphere is its exact curve and one half of it is primarily U-shaped. Because in magnets there are always two poles and one normal way to show them is in a U-shape, but if it's in a bar magnet, there are still two poles and the shape is still the same.

We can only put a rope one half way around the tree and it's coming back the other way, and this is true in all wave motion. Now, if you extend this into velocity, this is the pattern in the sine wave and definitely the electromagnetic wave.

All motion is relative to all other motion, so this serpentine, spiral state. So it's not the form of that motion, the graph and the equation. I'll accept the fact that it's the form of the utron motion though. Also the form as well in two dimensions is intensified in the geometry of our accumulator.

Why do you refer to this vehicle as a 4th dimensional vehicle? Because the geometry of the accumulator is such as the 4th dimension. To me the application of space and time, a vibratory field and electricity as we know it is a vibratory force in motion.

This is symbolic of it and when it is activated it becomes such. Now this may be a little bit difficult to understand, but nevertheless the very smallest electronic particles of matter have been shown under the highest type of electron microscope to be one-dimensional squares.

To me this is verification that this is truly a space dimension because it is the shape of matter. Without matter you couldn't have space. I'm holding a thing that looks like two loudspeakers in a simplified form, placed mouth to mouth, two cones mouth to mouth, like two tops together so they have a point at each end and actually like a thickened flying saucer Now what is it that comes from that: The voltage is whatever we wish to make it by design.

In other words, then, this is a battery? The battery then goes through these magnets?

Speed & Velocity

The battery rotates in this magnetic field. The average armature today in any electrical system is usually the permeability, iron wound with copper, then through a magnetic field acts as a motor, or it becomes a generator, depending upon the lead. The great novelty here in the area in which an armature is normally used, we have a [power unit, and this a battery, and this is a moving power unit.

In other words, you might call this a self-contained power supply, right? How would this generator maybe I'm using the wrong word gather additional energy from outside?

This is due to its circular motion. Electrical forces are motions where they manifest.

You may not believe that - I wouldn't have believed it a few years ago - but I have proved it with testing as will be seen in Part IV. Now the relative rotation of this model would be about 68, rpm, and when it reaches this rotation, it would immediately take off. Carr said it accumulated energy because of its shape, and focused it, and also responded to our conscious intentions. Still, Taylor also made the point that even a stopping rifle was ineffective with poor shooting:

Now we have cycles in alternating current; AC gives you 60 cycles per second; we have discovered in our experiments that there is a space cycle related to electricity, and if we join the cycle we get energy from it.

Mr Colton, will you try to describe to our listeners how they can draw at home a facsimile of an Utron? You can take a pencil and draw four lines to form an open square.

Force of friction keeping velocity constant

When you have a square, draw a straight line from one point of the square to an opposite point and you'll have two right angle triangles. Now if you convert the line you've just drawn into a small lip you'll begin to see two inverted cones, the base of which form a circular equator.

While you started with a square, you now have two cones. Obviously, the base of the cone is a circle or completely round as we describe it, and you have the device which is described as completely round and completely square, the Utron electric accumulator. The cavity in the center of these which is a hemisphere when the two cones are put together have a hollow sphere.

This is the cavity which contains the electrolyte which would be used in some of the applications of the accumulator. Of what value is the term "completely round and completely square" apart from its obvious redundancy.

It is the definition of the terminal motions of universal energies in what we call space. In one of your brochures you make mention of a "photon gun" and you say, "This is primarily a development that works outside of the earth's atmosphere. We are entering an age of space flight and the use of solar energy is practically unlimited" What is a photon gun?

I am using the word gun as a reaction principal instead of as a weapon, nevertheless it is a gun and in fact fires billions of rays of solar energy at right angles to the reception.

By placing them through a certain chamber, we have been able to get a reaction and whenever there is a reaction, we can get power, we can get force from it. So we feel outside the earth's atmosphere new systems of propulsion even beyond our own of electromagnetism will make themselves apparent.

Carr, President of OTC Enterprises in Baltimore and inventor of a manmade spacecraft, which he has offered to build and deliver to the government without one penny of risk to the American taxpayer, publicly revealed the propulsion principle of his spacecraft in the following statement: These statements in evaluation of natural physical phenomena as first discerned and made public by Mr Carr, have been physically tested in laboratory experiment by an impartial scientific laboratory and confirmed as follows: The above-described assembly of counter-rotating charged masses becomes weightless and will escape the immediate attraction of gravitational forces.

Our experiments and investigations have made known to us that the mighty power from the Sun can be utilized when the geometry of design is properly evaluated. We are aware of the resistance factors involved, due to the earth's atmosphere, and our developments have been predicated on overcoming these, which in some instances has been done.

We have invented a Fourth Dimensional Vehicle. This Fourth Dimensional Vehicle is powered by the revolutionary Utron electric accumulator, which is completely round and completely square, and generates its own power, which is electromagnetism and electromotive force.

It can be launched form the earth, and does not have to be blasted into space. The basic design was brought to the attention of the United States Government, and a patent application was filed in Some tests were independently made by qualified engineers at one of America's leading plants and it was estimated that a small model, only 4 inches in diameter, produced energy equivalent to 1, tons.

This was inand Mr Carr was unable to interest anyone in his efforts at that time. Things have changed, and the Government has now put its blessing on space flight development. At the present time the rocket enthusiasts are commanding topmost attention. But there will be changes in thinking, and new directions of endeavor very soon.

Our experiments with circular-foil design, as relates to gravity, electromagnetism, and electromotive force, have led us to the certain conclusion that it is possible to use the inverse-proportion laws of Newton as successfully as the third law of motion applies to accelerated rockets.

We will produce the OTC-X1 circular-foil spacecraft as the first operational prototype as symbolized in this conception drawing. He pointed out that "Christ is truly expressed in the sign of the Cross -- the true Cross -- the absolute, the finite expression of the cosmos that we call the Universe".

The inventor further stated: The correlation of these properties manifest in several forms, their two categories being called energy and matter. We have equated the shape of this universal space and translated it into physical form which we have called the Utron Electrical Accumulator, which expresses the linear correlation of space motions and directions in a form that is therefore completely round and completely square.

The space ship designer then mathematically points out his theory: This relativity is a unified field, expressed in physical form is the square in the circle bisected by the Cross.

Frederick Courteney Selous says that using such weapons crippled him and Sir Samuel Baker foreswore such things as soon as he developed guns and loads capable of dependable penetration, preferring the far less punishing 10 bore! Tactical considerations concerning penetration are a different matter entirely.

The Utron Electrical Accumulator is the full expression of the dot that was the beginning of 0X, extended in all directions to form the cross, which in motion continues on to form the square and the circle. The Word was 0X [actually: AeTZI], and in the revelation of Jesus, was given for all who wanted to see, in the symbolism of the true cross.

And perhaps there is no far. Perhaps the Universe Is right where we are. Carr This invention relates generally to implements in amusement devices, and more particularly to an improved amusement device of the type where the passengers will receive the impression of riding in an interplanetary spacecraft.

The present invention contemplates a novel amusement device having the overall configuration of a spacecraft and being formed in various sections, with portions of the sections being rotated in opposite directions to give the impression of movement to the passengers.

It is also contemplated to move the craft up and down and display an animated movie of heavenly bodies above the passengers to give the passengers an impression of leaving the earth and approaching a distant planet or the like. This invention further contemplates the provision of electromagnets, cones, and the like carried by the oppositely rotating sections of the device, and windows through which the passengers may view these simulated objects to give the impression that they are viewing the inner workings of an interplanetary spacecraft during flight of the craft.

Finally, this invention contemplates the construction of the various portions of an amusement device simulating an interplanetary spacecraft in such a manner that the device may be easily transported in sections from one location to another and reassembled in a minimum of time.

An important object of this invention is to provide an amusement device wherein a passenger in the device receives an impression of flying in an interplanetary spacecraft.

Another object of this invention is to provide an amusement device having a general configuration of an interplanetary spacecraft and having oppositely rotating sections simulating the movement of various portions of the device to impress the passengers with flight in a spacecraft.

Another object of this invention is to provide an amusement device simulating an interplanetary spacecraft wherein the passengers will be physically moved a very minor distance and yet will receive the impression of flying in a spacecraft. A further object of this invention is to provide a portable amusement device simulating an interplanetary spacecraft which may be easily disassembled and transported from one location to another.

A still further object of this invention is to provide an amusement device which is simple in construction, may be economically manufactured, and which will have a long service life. Other objects and advantages of the invention will be evident from the following detailed description, when read in conjunction with the accompanying drawings which illustrate my invention.

Figure 1 is an elevational view of an amusement device constructed in accordance with this invention. Figure 2 is a vertical sectional view through the device illustrated in Figure 1.

Figure 3 is a plan view of the landing gear for the amusement device, with the housing around the legs of the landing gear removed. Figure 4 is a plan view of the supporting structure or framework for the outer rotating shell of the amusement device shown in Figures 1 and 2.

Figure 5 is a plan view of the central rotating assembly which rotates within the outer shell frame illustrated in Figures 2 and 4. Figure 6 is an enlarged sectional view illustrating the support and the drive between the inner rotating assembly and the outer rotating assembly.

Flow Measurement

Figure 7 is a plan view of the floor portion of the passenger cabin. Referring to the drawings in detail, and particularly Figures 1 and 2, a preferred embodiment of the present invention comprises, generally speaking, a supporting structure and landing gear 10, an outer rotating shell 12, an inner rotating assembly 14 shown only in Figure 2 and a passenger cabin 16 extending downwardly into the upper end portion of the outer shell The landing gear and supporting mechanism 20 comprises a vertically extending tubular member 18 around which the outer shell 12 and inner rotating assembly 14 are journaled as will be hereinafter set forth, and a plurality of legs 20 extending radially outward in circumferentially spaced relation from the lower end of the tubular member The tubular member 18 is telescoped over a supporting stanchion 22 which may be in the form of a pipe, and the tubular member 18 is slidingly supported on the stanchion 22 by suitable wheels or rollers 24 to facilitate vertical movement of the member 18 on the stanchion 22, as will be hereinafter set forth.

The stanchion 22 is preferably supported in a suitable foundation 25 to provide adequate strength for the amusement device. A suitable jack 26, preferably a hydraulic jack, is anchored in the foundation 23 underneath the outer end portion of each of the landing gear legs 20 and is provided with an extension 28 extending upwardly into connection with the respective leg The jacks 26 are operated simultaneously to raise and lower the landing gear and supporting structure 10, as will be described.

A suitable shaped housing 20 is preferably secured around each of the landing gear legs 20 to provide a streamlined appearance. It may be noted that each of the legs 20 is preferably constructed out of a structurally strong member, such as an I-beam, and is secured to the lower end potions of the tubular member 18 by suitable braces 32 and plates 34 to assure a rigid and adequate connection of the legs to the tubular member A pair of rollers 36 see also Figure 3 are rotatably supported adjacent the outer end portion of each leg 20 of the landing gear and are arranged to engage a circular track 38 Figures 2 and 4 for partially supporting the outer shell 12 and the inner rotating assembly 14 as will be described.

Also, a suitable drive motor 40 Figure 3 is mounted on one of the legs 20 of the landing gear and is connected through a suitable gear box 42 to one of the rollers 36 to rotate the outer shell 12 with respect to the landing gear and the supporting structure The roller 36 connected to the drive motor 40 may be suitably chained not shown to its companion roller 36 to assure an adequate drive connection between the drive motor and the circular track The shell Figure 2 is tubular in configuration, with the diameter of the central portion thereof substantially larger than the diameter at the opposite ends thereof, and is supported in an upright position to give the general appearance of two saucers placed face-to-face.

The outer edge portion 44 of the shell 12 is preferably formed of partially transparent material, such as Plexiglass, and is illuminated from within not shown to provide a band of light around the central portion of the shell The shell 12 is supported on a frame generally designated by reference character 46 and illustrated in Figures 2 and 4.

The frame 46 may be easily formed with industrial steel tubing 52 formed into a truss with bracing of steel rods With this construction, the frame 46 may be easily fabricated in sections for convenient assembly, or the entire frame 46 may be lifted off of the supporting member 18 and transported to another location.

Support of the frame 46 and the outer shell 12 is provided by the track 38 previously mentioned which is secured on the lower face of the lower horizontally extending portion 50 of th3 frame 46 in a position to engage the roller 36 carried by the landing gear legs Additional support for the frame 46 is provided by rollers 56 Figure 6 secured around the inner edge of the lower portion 50 of the frame, and rollers 58 secured around the inner periphery of both portions 48 and 50 of the frame.

The rollers 56 are arranged in circumferentially spaced relation around the inner periphery of the frame 46 and engage a circular track 60 supported by the legs 20 of the landing gear.

The track 60 may be an extension of the upper plate 34 shown in Figure 3. The rollers 58 engage tracks 62 extending circumferentially around the supporting member 18 to accommodate any radial forces imposed on the frame It will be understood that any desired number of the rollers or wheels 36 operated by the motor 40 will engage the track 38 to rotate the shell 12 in one direction around the longitudinal axis of the supporting member The rollers 56 will engage the track 60, and the rollers 58 will engage the tracks 62 during such rotation of the outer shell 12 and frame The inner rotating assembly 14 is generally annular-shaped, as illustrated in Figure 5, for movement around the supporting member 18 between the upper and lower horizontally extending portions 48 and 50 of the frame The assembly 14 is also preferably constructed as a frame out of square steel tubing 52 formed into a truss with steel rods 54 for bracing, and is provided with a double conically-shaped framework 64 adjacent the supporting member For a non-rotating sphere, CD is constant.

Measure of good force vector pitching and other joint mobility? Ep197

I originally estimated CD to be 0. In reality, CD tends to fall somewhere between 0.

Magnitude and angle of the resultant force (KristaKingMath)

For determining drag coefficient, see below Section I-D Air DensityA is the cross-sectional area of the BB. Because velocity is derived from the previous drag calculation, an error is introduced. The best way to minimize this error is to use very, very small time intervals for calculating velocity, as well as using and ODE approximation such as the Runge-Kutta method.

At time intervals of 0. Additionally, it is useful to have the equation for calculating Reynolds number for the projectile: At low speeds, CD is slightly lower, while at high speeds it increases to around 0. Technically speaking, a smooth sphere can surpass a critical velocity wherein the CD would be greatly diminished.

This is most probable for larger objects, however, and is considered impossible in the realm of airsoft.

Homework Help: Velocity & Force on a Moving Charge in Magnetic Field

For this to happen with a 6mm BB, it would have to moving several times faster than 0. Ultimately, CD tends to stay between 0. It is interesting to note that hop-up actually reduces drag when significant spin is applied.

For aerodynamic shapes, lift incurs greater drag by inducing early separation of the boundary layer.

Pure energy, but in other systems it could change. In practice, there are many applications specified for equipment with SIL certification to be used on control systems without the safety function.

However, for the rather non-aerodynamic sphere, spin actually increases laminar flow resulting in lowered pressure drag. This is explained in Section III: While calculations are continuously made throughout the model run to determine CD accurately, I later found that such calculations were not paramount for determining trajectory nor energy dissipation.

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